Greco-Roman mythology is the set of myths originating from Greek civilization and Roman civilization. The first civilization will exert a strong influence on the second. Long after the disappearance of the Greek and Roman religions, Greek mythology will be used as a subject of inspiration by artists, and continues to be so today.
Gods, demigods and heroes are personifications of the elements of the cosmos and the forces of nature. That is why they are equipped with attributes like lightning, trident, bow and arrows.
All these divinities exist only through the links which unite them to the global divine system, of which there is a master who reigns over the universe: it is the supreme-being.
According to the Greeks, there is first of all Chaos. Then Eros (= desire) and Gaia (= earth) generate Ouranos (= the sky), Pontos (= the sea stream), Tartaros (= the underworld) and other deities. All created deities embody fundamental aspects of nature, such as:
-Helios = the _________________________________
-Selene = the _________________________________
-Eos = the __________________________________
There are also sovereign deities:
a) Cronos (the son of Ouranos and Gaia) is the king of the Titans and
the husband of her sister Rhéa
b) Zeus (the son of Cronos and Rhea) is married to his sister Hera
GODS AND GODDESSES: Connect Correctly
1 / Zeus (Jupiter)
a) a hero or demigod who is very courageous
2 / Hera (Juno)
b) the god of the shepherds
3 / Pallas Athena (Minèrve)
c) sea nymphs that lure sailors to their doom with their song
4 / Ares (March)
d) the queen of heaven, the goddess of women and of the family
5 / Hephaestus (Vulcan)
e) the goddess of intelligence, wisdom and craftsmanship (+ protector of Athens)
6 / Aphrodite (Venus)
f) the wife of Hades (queen of the underworld), the goddess of the harvest
7 / Poseidon (Neptune)
g) the goddesses of music, dance, song and poetry
8 / Apollo
h) king of the underworld and the dead
9 / Artemis (Diane)
i) the god of wine, feast and madness
10 / Hermès (Mercury)
j) the god of fire and volcanoes
11 / Dionysos (Bacchus)
k) the king of the sea and the creator of the horses
12 / Demeter (Ceres)
l) the goddess of hunting and animals
13 / Persephone (Proserpine)
m) the god of music, song, poetry, sun and light
14 / Hades (Pluto)
n) a titan forced by Zeus to carry the sky on his shoulders
15 / Pan
o) the goddess of love and beauty
16 / Prometheus
p) the king of heaven
17 / Asclepius
q) the goddess of fertility and agriculture
18 / The muses
r) the divine messenger, the god of travel, language and writing
19 / Atlas
s) the giver of divine fire to men
20 / Heracles (Hercules)
t) the god of healing
21 / The sirens
u) the god of war and violence
Today Norse mythology is mainly associated with the Vikings who exported their beliefs beyond Scandinavia, then we also speak of Viking mythology. Norse mythology features a large number of deities, fabulous creatures and heroes.
A number of the mythological poems were compiled in the 13th century in the Poetic Edda. Long forgotten, this mythology was rediscovered in the 18th century with the romantic current in Europe.
The Yggdrasil tree is the source of life, magic and psyche (= ziel). It supports and houses two worlds: Muspelheim, to the south, the world of fire, and Niflheim, to the north, the world of ice and mists (= nevelslierten).
Since the creation of the universe and the magical worlds, the Yggdrasil tree has served as a bridge, a balance between worlds and maintains the cycle of life and death. When a living being is born, it borrows the vital essence of the divine tree by consuming one of its fruits. When a being dies, this one returns the borrowed essence and Yggdrasil ripens a new fruit for a next being.
The Nordic pantheon is first divided into two groups: the Aesir, warrior gods, and the Vanir who are related to fertility.
1. Odin (Wodan)
Odin is the sovereign god of Norse mythology, he is the god:
- _______________________________________________ (van het licht)
- _______________________________________________ (van de elementen)
- _______________________________________________ (van de oorlog)
- _______________________________________________ (van het verstand)
He is the creator of the earth, ____________________________ (of rechter) of mankind
and the father of the majority of the gods. His anger is feared by humans.
He has two crows (Hugin and Munin):
________________________________ (het verstand) and
_________________________________ (het geheugen).
2. Frigg (a)
She is the queen of the gods and the wife of Odin. Like her husband, she knows the future. She is the goddess:
- _______________________________________________ (van het huwelijk)
- _______________________________________________ (van het moederschap)
In his home, called Fensalir (= the illuminated fortress),
she occupies her days spinning the clouds.
In fact, she is often depicted with a spinning wheel.
F. Schubert: Gretchen am Spinnrade
Thor is a warrior god, he is the god of _____________________________ (donder) and
the protector of ______________________________ (landbouwers). Its most important attribute
famous is the Mjöllnir hammer with which he creates ______________________ (from bliksem).
It protects men against the forces of chaos, such as _______________________
(reuzen) that he shoots down regularly and of which he is the worst enemy.
He is the son of Odin (and Jörd) and his wife
the golden haired goddess Sif.
Loki is the god _____________________________ (van het bedrog).
He is clever and the cause of much misfortune among the gods.
She is the goddess:
- _______________________________________________ (van de jeugd)
- _______________________________________________ (slow van)
- _______________________________________________ (van de liefde)
- _______________________________________________ (van de schoonheid)
She is often represented in a chariot pulled by two cats, or by swans (which evokes the afterlife, but also grace and beauty). Its equivalent in Greco-Roman mythology is therefore the goddess:
6. The Valkyries and the Valhalla
The Valkyries are warrior virgins who are in the service of Odin, the master of the gods. They are armed with armor and know how to fly and lead battles. They distribute death among the warriors and take the souls of heroes to Valhalla, the world of the dead: Odin's palace.
7. Elves, dwarves and goblins
Germanic / Nordic mythology
THE GODS AND THE HEROES
Who am I?
The Song of the Nibelungen is a medieval German epic, composed in the 13th century. The Song of the Nibelungen is the Germanic version of a legend also attested in Scandinavia. It tells of the exploits of Siegfried, prince holder of the treasure of Nibelungen, to help the Burgundian king Gunther to conquer the hand of Brunehilde, then his marriage with Kriemhild, sister of Gunther.
The assassination of Siegfried by Hagen is the beginning of a long revenge led by Kriemhild, which ends in the massacre of the Burgundians on the banks of the Danube.